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XMM-Newton Orbit and Constraints Details

XMM-Newton Orbit details

The parameters of the orbit for XMM-Newton are given in the following table; below elements correspond to Perigee Passage (start of) rev 1200, 2006-06-28@02:19:36 UT.

Parameter Approximate value
Apogee (km) 108898
Perigee (km) 24985
Inclination 52.608°
Eccentricity 0.62676
Argument of Perigee 129.505°
RA of Ascending Node 116.377°
Launch Date Dec 10 1999
Orbit length (hours) 48 (approx.)
Number of Ground Stations 2 (Perth and Kourou)
occasionally Santiago and Vilspa

XMM-Newton Viewing constraints

The constraints applied in the visibility analysis are given in the table below:

Parameter Value
Solar Avoidance Angle 70 - 110°
Earth Limb Avoidance Angle 42°
Moon Avoidance Angle 22°
Moon Avoidance Angle (during eclipses) 35°
Size of the visibility bins 2°x 2°
Minimum Altitude for Observation (km) 46000

Database of Observable Bins (DBOB)

In order to determine the visibility, the sky is divided into bins of approximately equal solid angle.
The visibility of each bin is then assessed against viewing constraints with respect to the Earth, Sun and Moon.
For a target to be considered as visible, the corresponding bin has be be fully visible, i.e.: all four corners of the bin should be constraint free.
The set of visible bins is known as the DataBase of Observable Bins - DBOB.
In this version (7.0) of the Visibility Checker the size of each bin is, approximately, 2°x 2°.
  All strips start at RA = 0°
  First strip (strip 0) is centered at Dec: 0° and covers from Dec: -01° to +01°
  All strips have a heigth of 2° (except the bins at the poles that cover from Dec: ±89° to ±90°).
  The number of bins per strip is:
    Strips 0 to ±2:    180 bins
    Strips ±3 to ±7:   175 bins
    Strips ±8 to ±12:  170 bins
    Strips ±13 to ±17: 155 bins
    Strips ±18 to ±22: 140 bins
    Strips ±23 to ±27: 115 bins
    Strips ±28 to ±32:  90 bins
    Strips ±33 to ±37:  60 bins
    Strips ±38 to ±42:  30 bins
    Strips ±43 to ±44:   5 bins
    Strips ±45:          1 bin
XMM-Newton; Europe's X-Ray Observatory
Last update: 02-Jul-2007 by